Controversy exists over the Falklands' discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans. At various times the islands have had French, British, Spanish, and Argentine settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833, but Argentina maintains its claim to the islands. In April 1982, Argentine military forces invaded the islands. British administration was restored two months later at the end of the Falklands War. In a 2013 sovereignty referendum almost all Falklanders voted in favour of remaining a UK overseas territory. The territory's sovereignty status is part of an ongoing dispute between Argentina and the UK.
The population (3,662 inhabitants in 2021) is primarily native-born Falkland Islanders, the majority of British descent. Other ethnicities include French, Gibraltarians, and Scandinavians. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, and Chile has reversed a population decline. The predominant (and official) language is English. Under the British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983, Falkland Islanders are British citizens.
The islands lie at the boundary of the subantarctic oceanic and tundra climate zones, and both major islands have mountain ranges reaching 2,300 ft (700 m). They are home to large bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands due to predation by introduced species. Major economic activities include fishing, tourism and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports. Oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina.
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|Yearly average||6 °C ❄️|
|3 month average||9 °C ❄️|
|Spring average||6 °C ❄️|
|Summer average||2 °C ❄️|
|Fall average||6 °C ❄️|
|Winter average||9 °C ❄️|
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